Cross-Channel Innovations

Adelaar, T. Steinfield, C. and Idema, S. (2009). Evolution of multichannel strategies of store-based retailers in the US. 8th Workshop on eBusiness, Phoenix, AZ, 15 December 2009.

  • Abstract: The goal of this paper is to assess how differences in products offered by retailers explain variations in multichannel retailing strategies, using data collected at two points in time. Understanding such effects enhances our view of the strategic opportunities regarding the implementation of e-commerce strategies and management of channel portfolios. The results can help managers to assess their positioning along search and experience goods, and learn from novel multichannel strategies within their own and related industries. It further helps managers determine their competencies and gain insight into available multichannel strategies that best fit the type of products sold, available resources and capabilities.
  • Keywords: product characteristics, multichannel retailing, longitudinal perspective

Verhagen, T., Boter, J. and Adelaar, T.  (Accepted) The effect of product type on consumers’ preference for website content elements: An empirical study. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication.

  • Abstract: While a relationship between product type and consumer preferences for website content is likely to exist, research into this area is remarkably sparse. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate empirically how the importance of website content elements in online purchasing varies across two product categorizations, namely goods versus services, and hedonic versus utilitarian products. These two dichotomies are of particular interest since they tap into key differences in product form and function, and may be used to map out requirements for website design. We hypothesize and test the differences in importance of ten basic website content elements across the two product dichotomies. We conducted an experiment that showed that when services are for sale, customers value to the provision of evaluation-facilitating elements and risk-reducing content, while consumers buying goods may be satisfied with fewer features. In addition, the results indicate that selling hedonic products could be more effective when the focus is on a large and unique assortment. Websites selling utilitarian products, on the other hand, may profit from investing in instrumental website content. Overall, the experimental study validates the guiding role of product type in website design, and suggests that incorporating product tactics into design requirements is likely to contribute to the development of websites that are more tailored to specific groups of consumers.

Steinfield, C., Adelaar, T., and Liu, F. (2005). Click and Mortar Strategies Viewed from the Web: A Content Analysis of Features Illustrating Integration Between Retailers’ Online and Offline Presence. Electronic Markets, 15(3), 199-212.

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  • Abstract: E-commerce researchers have shown that retailers are increasingly following a click and mortar strategy, whereby online and offline channels are becoming more integrated. Despite case study evidence for the benefit of this approach, an analysis of the websites of nearly 1,000 US-based retailers having both an online and offline presence reveals that a high degree of integration across channels is relatively uncommon. On the contrary, the study reported here demonstrates that retailers are more likely to pursue easy-to-accomplish, low intensity, informational integration when developing an online presence, exemplified by such features as a listing of store locations or hours. Few retail websites offer complex integration capabilities, such as the ability to search local store inventories, or to pick up and return online purchases in a local outlet. Regression analyses reveal that the retail sector and firm resources help to explain this discrepancy. With regard to sector, some product types require more physical presence (e.g. in-person inspection or interaction) than others, and a high degree of integration appears to require a level of investment and IT sophistication not always available to small retailers.

Steinfield, C., Adelaar, T., and Liu, F. (2005). Click and Mortar Strategies Viewed From the Web: A Content Analysis of Online/Offline Integration. International Communication Association, New York City, May 26-30.

Adelaar, T., Bouwman, H., Steinfield, C. (2004). Enhancing customer value through click-and-mortar e-commerce: Implications for geographical market reach and customer type. Telematics & Informatics. 21 (2), 167-182.

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  • Abstract: Firms continue to focus more attention on how to make use of the Internet for commercial purposes. Traditional firms are integrating their existing market channels and their online presence, into what is often called click-and-mortar e-commerce. In this paper we will discuss how click-and-mortar e-commerce generates synergies and customer value, and what implications it has for the type of customers and the geographical market a firm serves. The analysis of eighteen Dutch firms from a variety of industries has the following results. First of all, click-and- mortar e-commerce is used to strengthen relations with existing customers in geographical markets where firms are already active. Secondly, click-and-mortar firms are able to serve relocating customers and re-establish contact with customers who have moved away. Thirdly, click-and-mortar e-commerce can make it easier and less costly to make a purchase within a firm’s existing market, which may have the effect of bringing in new customers in that market. Contrary to the usual expectations for e-commerce, click-and-mortar e-commerce are to a lesser extent used to penetrate new, more distant geographical markets, nationally as well as internationally. The case studies also indicate that the degree of click-and-mortar e-commerce.

Adelaar, T. and Bauer, J. M. (2003). E-commerce, competitiveness and the spatial structure of markets. The Second Workshop on e-Business, Seattle, WA, December 13-14.

Steinfield, C., Bouwman, H., & Adelaar, T. (2002). The Dynamics of Click and Mortar E-Commerce: Opportunities and Management Strategies. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 7 (1), 93-120.

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  • Abstract: Many traditional brick-and-mortar businesses supplement their physical outlets with e-commerce capabilities on the Web, but there has been lit tle empirical research on the underlying dynamics of the “click-and-mortar” business approach. This paper develops a conceptual framework that highlights the four types of synergies obtained by integrating e-commerce with physical infrastructures: cost savings, improved differentiation, enhanced trust, and market extension. Case studies of click-and-mortar enterprises provide concrete examples of these synergy benefits and of the managerial actions needed to prevent channel conflicts.

Steinfield, C., Adelaar, T., Lai, Y. (2002) Integrating Brick and Mortar Locations with E-Commerce: Understanding Synergy Opportunities. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Big Island, Hawaii, January 7-10.

Adelaar, T. (2001). Aspects of Click and Mortar e-Commerce: Understanding Synergy Opportunities. Paper presented at the Digital Communities 2001, Chicago, IL, November 4-6, 2001.

Adelaar, T., Steinfield, C., Bouwman, H. (2001). Hybrid e-commerce: Customer centric approaches within heterogeneous selling environments. International Conference on Telecommunications and Information Markets, Karlsruhe, Germany, July 18-20, 2001.

Steinfield C., Wit, D. de, Adelaar, T., Bruins, A., Fielt, E., Hoefsloot, M., Smit, A., and Bouwman, H. (2001). Pillars of virtual enterprise: Leveraging physical assets in the new economy. Info 3 (3), 203-213.

Steinfield, C., Bouwman, H., Adelaar, T. (2001) Combining Physical and Virtual Channels: Opportunities, Imperatives and Challenges. Bled Electronic Commerce Conference, Bled, Slovenia, June 25-26, 2001

Steinfield, C., Wit, de D., Adelaar, T., Fielt, E., Smit, A., and Bouwman, H., Simons, L., DeLange, E., and Staal, M. (2001). The Use of Hybrid E-Commerce by Firms: Understanding the Dynamics of Click and Mortar Business Models, International Conference on Uses and Services in Telecommunications, Paris, France, June 12-14, 2001.

Steinfield, C., Wit, de D., Adelaar, T., Bruins, A., Fielt, E., Hoefsloot, M., Smit, A., and Bouwman, H. (2000). Leveraging Physical and Virtual Presence in Electronic Commerce: The Role of Hybrid Approaches in the New Economy. International Telecommunications Society, Buenos Aires, Argentina, July 2-5, 2000.