Journal Articles

Verhagen, T., Boter, J. and Adelaar, T.  (Accepted) The effect of product type on consumers’ preference for website content elements: An empirical study. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication.

  • Abstract: While a relationship between product type and consumer preferences for website content is likely to exist, research into this area is remarkably sparse. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate empirically how the importance of website content elements in online purchasing varies across two product categorizations, namely goods versus services, and hedonic versus utilitarian products. These two dichotomies are of particular interest since they tap into key differences in product form and function, and may be used to map out requirements for website design. We hypothesize and test the differences in importance of ten basic website content elements across the two product dichotomies. We conducted an experiment that showed that when services are for sale, customers value to the provision of evaluation-facilitating elements and risk-reducing content, while consumers buying goods may be satisfied with fewer features. In addition, the results indicate that selling hedonic products could be more effective when the focus is on a large and unique assortment. Websites selling utilitarian products, on the other hand, may profit from investing in instrumental website content. Overall, the experimental study validates the guiding role of product type in website design, and suggests that incorporating product tactics into design requirements is likely to contribute to the development of websites that are more tailored to specific groups of consumers.

Steinfield, C., Adelaar, T., and Liu, F. (2005). Click and Mortar Strategies Viewed from the Web: A Content Analysis of Features Illustrating Integration Between Retailers’ Online and Offline Presence. Electronic Markets, 15(3), 199-212.

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  • Abstract: E-commerce researchers have shown that retailers are increasingly following a click and mortar strategy, whereby online and offline channels are becoming more integrated. Despite case study evidence for the benefit of this approach, an analysis of the websites of nearly 1,000 US-based retailers having both an online and offline presence reveals that a high degree of integration across channels is relatively uncommon. On the contrary, the study reported here demonstrates that retailers are more likely to pursue easy-to-accomplish, low intensity, informational integration when developing an online presence, exemplified by such features as a listing of store locations or hours. Few retail websites offer complex integration capabilities, such as the ability to search local store inventories, or to pick up and return online purchases in a local outlet. Regression analyses reveal that the retail sector and firm resources help to explain this discrepancy. With regard to sector, some product types require more physical presence (e.g. in-person inspection or interaction) than others, and a high degree of integration appears to require a level of investment and IT sophistication not always available to small retailers.

Adelaar, T., Bouwman, H., Steinfield, C. (2004). Enhancing customer value through click-and-mortar e-commerce: Implications for geographical market reach and customer type. Telematics & Informatics. 21 (2), 167-182.

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  • Abstract: Firms continue to focus more attention on how to make use of the Internet for commercial purposes. Traditional firms are integrating their existing market channels and their online presence, into what is often called click-and-mortar e-commerce. In this paper we will discuss how click-and-mortar e-commerce generates synergies and customer value, and what implications it has for the type of customers and the geographical market a firm serves. The analysis of eighteen Dutch firms from a variety of industries has the following results. First of all, click-and- mortar e-commerce is used to strengthen relations with existing customers in geographical markets where firms are already active. Secondly, click-and-mortar firms are able to serve relocating customers and re-establish contact with customers who have moved away. Thirdly, click-and-mortar e-commerce can make it easier and less costly to make a purchase within a firm’s existing market, which may have the effect of bringing in new customers in that market. Contrary to the usual expectations for e-commerce, click-and-mortar e-commerce are to a lesser extent used to penetrate new, more distant geographical markets, nationally as well as internationally. The case studies also indicate that the degree of click-and-mortar e-commerce.

Adelaar, T., Chang, S., Lancendorfer, K., Lee, B., and Morimoto, M. (2003). Effects of media formats on emotions and impulse buying intent. Journal of Information Technology, 18 (4), 247-266.

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  • Abstract: One way of generating revenue from broadband media content rests upon the assumption that multi-media content may trigger a greater intent to buy products and services impulsively. An experiment was performed in order to explore the effects of media formats on the emotions and impulse buying intentions for music compact discs (CDs). Three distinct media formats of World Wide Web pages were set up: (1) the text of the lyrics, (2) still images from the song’s music video and (3) the music video itself. Each had a varying degree of visual/ verbal intensity while simultaneously playing the soundtrack in all three conditions. The results of this study indicate that displaying the text of the lyrics had a greater effect on the impulse buying intent than showing still images of the music video. In addition, different media formats caused emotional responses that can explain the participant’s impulse buying intent to buy the CD. Unexpectedly, the still images and video did not necessarily generate more buying intention than combinations of the text and music. Therefore, it is recommended that electronic commerce and marketing managers explore innovative ways of integrating visual and verbal media formats for eliciting an effective consumer response.

Steinfield, C., Bouwman, H., & Adelaar, T. (2002). The Dynamics of Click and Mortar E-Commerce: Opportunities and Management Strategies. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 7 (1), 93-120.

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  • Abstract: Many traditional brick-and-mortar businesses supplement their physical outlets with e-commerce capabilities on the Web, but there has been lit tle empirical research on the underlying dynamics of the “click-and-mortar” business approach. This paper develops a conceptual framework that highlights the four types of synergies obtained by integrating e-commerce with physical infrastructures: cost savings, improved differentiation, enhanced trust, and market extension. Case studies of click-and-mortar enterprises provide concrete examples of these synergy benefits and of the managerial actions needed to prevent channel conflicts.

Steinfield C., Wit, D. de, Adelaar, T., Bruins, A., Fielt, E., Hoefsloot, M., Smit, A., and Bouwman, H. (2001). Pillars of virtual enterprise: Leveraging physical assets in the new economy. Info 3 (3), 203-213.

Adelaar,  T. (2000) Electronic Commerce and the Implications for Market Structure: The Example of the Art and Antiques Trade. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 5 (3), (March 2000).

Selected Reports

Adelaar, T., Wierstra, E. and de Wit, D. (2000). The current state of e-commerce in the Netherlands. The example of the music industry. Project by the Rathenau Instituut and the Telematica Instituut.

Dissertation, Edited Books and Book Chapters

Adelaar, T. (2005). Explaining variations in the use of the Internet to support inter-organizational exchange: The case of the recycling industry. Unpublished Dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

Adelaar, T. (2003). Electronic Commerce and the Implications for Market Structure: The Example of the Art and Antiques Trade. In: Steinfield, C. (Ed.) (2003). New Directions in Research on E-commerce. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.

Verhagen, T., Noteberg, A., & Adelaar, T. (Eds.). (2002). Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Electronic Commerce. Facing New Realities. Amsterdam: Edispuut.

Selected Conference Papers and Presentations